The sample of immigrant wives selected from the micro-data file for each census year is merged with the database on source-country attributes using detailed country of birth and year of landing as the link keys. Put differently, immigrants in the census files are assigned a set of their source-country attributes measured in the year they came to Canada. The data files from the six censuses are then pooled together for model estimation. With pooled data, a given cohort of immigrants can be followed over time allowing differences between cohorts and changes within cohorts the assimilation effect to be estimated simultaneously.
The outcome variables are labour market activities and unpaid household work. The total hours of unpaid housework for each spouse are the hours that the person spent doing housework, maintaining the house, or doing yard work without getting paid for doing so.
The second indicator is the ratio of female—male secondary school enrolment rates hereafter referred to as "female—male education". Language spoken is coded as four dummy variables: mother tongue is not English or French and not speaking English or French; mother tongue is not English or French but speaking French; mother tongue is not English or French but speaking English; and mother tongue is French. Finally, the geographic region distinguishes the three largest metropolitan areas Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver , the ten provinces excluding the three metropolitan areas , and the combined three territories.
For each outcome variable, three models in sequence are estimated.
For immigrant wife i from source country j , is the chosen outcome variable. This model will show the overall effect of source-country gender roles after controlling for socio-economic development and official languages. Since source-country attributes of each immigrant are measured at the group level, a cluster effect is allowed in estimating standard errors in order to correct the correlated error terms within a group Blau et al. Essentially, this approach first estimates the mean outcome for each cluster, adjusted for differences in individual-level characteristics across clusters, and then regresses the mean outcome on cluster-level predictors.
Persistent differences in the female—male labour activity were particularly evident at the country level. Although the ratio increased in most countries over the study period, the relative difference across countries changed very little. The regional averages presented in Table 1 mask considerable variations among countries within regions.
Inequality within immigrant families in the United States - Wikipedia
These results suggest that the difference in female—male education across source countries was not as persistent as the difference in female—male labour activity. That is, gender gaps in education closed more quickly than gender gaps in labour market participation. These two source regions were also ranked among the lowest in female—male labour activity as in Table 1.
However, while these observations were consistent with expectations, others were not.
Recent-immigrant women from different source regions varied considerably in human capital, and group differences were rather consistent over time Table 5. Married recent-immigrant women from different source regions differed considerably in their likelihood of having a Canadian-born husband Table 5 , of being a member of a visible-minority group, or of having French or English as their mother tongue. However, the effect of source-country female—male labour activity is weaker when the husband is an immigrant from a different source country. However, the effect of source-country official language is statistically significant and substantial.
A mother tongue other than English or French and not speaking English are also associated with lower labour force participation rates. This effect is very small when the husband is Canadian-born. The effects of two other source-country characteristics, GDP per capita and official language, are statistically significant.
The effect also tends to weaken slowly with length of stay in Canada. Among the other three source-country attributes, only the effect of GDP per capita remains significant after controlling for individual-level characteristics. Country of Publication: US Dimensions cm : Help Centre.
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Chuang Editor , Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda Editor. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 15 business days. One winning formula emerged: These programs work when they attempt to involve all family members as well as peers, in a culturally sensitive and community-based way.
Julia Perilla of Georgia State University described a domestic violence intervention for Latinos that involved both spouses—an approach that horrified native-born domestic violence advocates.
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Basically, the fact that Latinas and, we suspect, women from many different parts of the world remain in relationships in which there has been violence is due to a number of reasons. Of specific importance to the women with whom we work, first-generation Latina immigrants from Mexico approx. They are undocumented children and adolescents, but also legal and citizen children of undocumented parents—and many exist in a gray area with temporary status or some kind of documentation in process.
About 5. In the most recent year statistics are available , an estimated , children had some experience with deportation. Children in such situations grow up with secrecy and social invisibility.
Their parents cannot travel, work in most jobs, apply for many government services, or legally drive a car, among other limitations—and this is a legacy that extends to their children. University of Texas psychologist Luis H.